Author: lloydfed41

41. Susanna Mary Boulding and William Spence: New York City and Newport, RI

In which we follow the fortunes of Susanna [Boulding] and William Spence through nearly 40 years of marriage, five children, and their lives divided between metropolitan Manhattan and fashionable Newport RI.

In my last post, I described the marriage of Susannah Mary Boulding to William Spence, Coachman, in October 1870.  William appeared in the 1870 Census in Newport, Rhode Island (RI), in the Gibbs family home.  Susannah has not yet been found in this census.  And so, the first sighting we have of the family is in the 1880 US Federal Census, in a property on Manhattan’s West 18th Street, which has featured in a New York Times article about New York’s heritage sites, accessed in April 2019 by a search on ‘Streetscapes West 18th Street’.  This address was a stables, in a row of architecturally distinguished stables, where resided at number 130:

William Spence, 43, Coachman. Self and parents born Ireland [sic] [William’s death certificate states his father was born in Scotland]
Susanna M Spence, 34, Wife, Keeping house, self and parents born England.
Susanna M Spence, 8, daughter, at school.  Born New York.
Sarah C Spence, 6, daughter. Born New York.
Florence V Spence, 4, daughter. Born New York.
Elizabeth J Spence, 2, daughter.  Born New Jersey.
William F Spence, 11 months, son.  Born New York.
(The family would be completed by the birth of Arthur Boulding (‘Bussy’) Spence on 8 January 1882.)

The 1890 New York City Directory also lists William Spence as ‘Ostler’ at this address (the 1890 US Federal Census having been largely destroyed by fire).

20181128_113153.jpgNumber 130 W. 18th Street  is now a New York Landmark Site.  Pictured here in November 2018 by William and Susannah’s 2x great grandson, number 130 is behind scaffolding, but the fine architecture can be seen in the building to its left in the photo. Its accommodation housed carriages at the front of the ground floor, with the horses stabled at the rear. On the first floor front were living quarters for the family, with the hayloft behind.  It was one in a row of 13 stables individually designed and built in the mid 1860s for wealthy New Yorkers.

These stable rows reflect a period in the city’s developmental history when private carriage houses began to be erected some blocks away from their owners’ homes, on streets devoted almost exclusively to private stables and commercial liveries.  An early manifestation of this trend, which became common practice during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, the West 18th Street row was one of the most extensive of the period and contained unusually large and handsomely decorated stables.[1]

William Spence, Coachman: William Spence was said to have worked from his arrival in the USA in approximately 1868 until his death in 1908, for Major Theodore K. Gibbs, owner of the stables at 130 and 132 W. 18th Street, and one of a wealthy family from Newport, RI.  One of his sons gave a few details about the family to his great nephew in the early 1960s:

‘The Major fought [in the Civil War] on the side of the North, and was injured in the head by a bullet, and never was in good health after that.  Father worked around the estate, he knew everything about farming and horses, as he was born in a section of Ireland (County Tyrone, North Ireland) where they did nothing else beside farming.  Father took the best of care of the Major because he was always in poor health due to the brain injury.  Father used to get long vacations during the winter because the Gibbses used to go to Pasadena, Cal., where the weather was warm, and the estate at Newport was closed down, and so we had long visits from Father in New York where the family lived.  Father was always with us for Christmas and Easter, under all circumstances.  His pay went on as usual during the vacation visits.’

William Spence was said to have been born in Stewartstown, Northern Ireland in 1832, and came to America in about 1868.   He had joined the huge migration of Irish people to the USA in the second half of the 19th century, following the 1846 famine. Around the time William is said to have arrived in the USA, one third of that country’s foreign-born population was Irish, and by the end of the 19th century, the population of Ireland was half that in 1851.[2]

Newport Society:  It seems the family lived a split existence, with William in service to the Gibbs family (variously in Newport RI and New York City), and Susannah based in New York City with their brood of six children.  The house ‘Bethshan’ in which T K Gibbs, his wife, and many servants (including William Spence) were recorded as living in the 1900 US Federal Census, was built in 1882, near to (but not one of) the great ‘cottages’ of fashionable Newport.  It was said to be a pleasant, but not overly grand, property. An extract from the New York Times dated 3 May 1899 is just one of many examples recording the comings and goings of the Gibbs family as part of Newport’s ‘season’: ‘The News of Newport.  May 2. A large number of horses, with baggage, carriages and servants for the cottagers, arrived today.  Major and Mrs Theodore K Gibbs will arrive tomorrow for the season.’  The New York Times reported in December 1895 that the ‘Theodore K Gibbs family’ would remain in Newport for the winter, despite other ‘cottagers’ having left for their New York homes with the approach of winter.[3]  This presumably meant that William Spence also remained with the Gibbs’ in Newport.

Worship:  During these formative years of the Spence family children in New York City, the family was said to have worshipped and all the children were christened at the nearby Church of the Holy Communion.  As with many other aspects of this story, this Church, located at 6th Avenue and W. 20th Street,  had wider significance than that my ancestors worshipped there – it is also of interest to the Landmark Preservation Trust. Designed in Gothic Revival style in 1846, it was commissioned by Mary Rogers, who intended that it should be an Episcopal church whose pews were free to all worshippers.  Its first Minister, Rev William Augustus Muhlenberg, was the founder of the New York Ecclesiological Society, which aimed to promote doctrinal aims through good church design. [4]

‘Although an urban church, this small Gothic Revival group of buildings has more nearly the feeling of a rural parish. The extreme simplicity of the architecture and the picturesque profile of roofs and towers give to the buildings an indescribable charm rarely to be found in the hard rectangularity of the City.  Its chief significance lies in the fact that this is a group of buildings executed in a uniform style of architecture and that, at a glance, it tells its own story. The church with tower, rose windows and gabled entrances built of uncoursed stonework proclaims itself at once for what it is, while the Sisters’ House is set ever so slightly apart and has its own smaller tower, gable and gabled entrance door.
Historically, it is significant as the first ‘free church’, that is, the first church in the City ~ which the pews were free to all comers, as today.
At this church they were not sold to pew-holders. It can also boast the introduction of the first “boy choir” in the City. The Sisters’ House is notable for having housed the first Anglican Sisterhood in this country. Another notable achievement associated with these buildings was the founding of St. Luke’s Hospital, under the Rectorship of the Rev. William Augustus Muhlenberg. It began in the Sisters’ House under the auspices of the “Sisters of Charity” and was later removed to the large building which once stood on Fifth Avenue at 54th Street. Today the Hospital is located at 113th Street and Amsterdam Avenue.’ (http://s-media.nyc.gov/agencies/lpc/lp/0216.pdf)

If the Spence family regularly worshipped here, they did so in the company of some of New York’s wealthiest citizens, including Roosevelts, Astors and Vanderbilts, and also Major T K Gibbs,  his New York residence shown in the 1880 US Federal Census as being nearby, at 62 W. 21st Street. In the first decade of the 20th century, New York Times articles show that Major T K Gibbs was a prominent member of the Episcopal Church in New York City.[5,6]

A constantly changing neighbourhood:  The area in which the Spences lived was one of great and continual change during the last two decades of the 19th century.  It is now in the Landmark Preservation Area called ‘The Ladies Mile’, referring to that stretch of Broadway which in the last part of the nineteenth century had been the centre of retailing of all types.  Throughout this period, new stores were built and expanded, which must have meant the area was undergoing constant change.  For instance, the Altman Brothers Department Store on Sixth Avenue (and also joining onto W. 18th Street) had several extensions, including the building of a 5-story stable building on West 18th Street, opposite where the Spence family lived.

The steam-operated Sixth Avenue El (elevated railway) had opened in 1878, with stops at 14th, 18th and 23rd Streets, allowing the development of a Fashion Row along Sixth Avenue, with department stores catering for all classes of customer.  The Broadway stores, however, were served during this period by clientele using private carriages or horse-drawn omnibuses.[7]

The Spence family thus lived in a very socially mixed area which varied in character street by street.  The 1880 Census showed that West 18th Street, for instance, housed many coachmen and others related to coaching (and many from Ireland) , while nearby streets, for instance 20th Street, where Theodore Roosevelt had been born, and 21st Street, where the Gibbs’ lived, housed the wealthy and prosperous merchant classes.  By 1900, however, the changing economy of the City meant that the big department stores were being rebuilt further uptown, and the Spences had moved fifteen blocks north.  Their move may have reflected the general northward migration as the population explosion of Jewish and Italian immigrants further south created pressures on housing.

1900:  New York City Directories of the 1880s, and of 1890, show William Spence as ‘Ostler’ at the 18th Street address.  However, in 1894, Wm Spence is shown at 333 W 32d St, the same address as that shown for Susan M Spence in 1896.  This address places them squarely in the middle of the site of Pennsylvania Railroad Station (‘Penn Station’, first opened in 1910.  Its construction probably caused subsequent moves for the family.

What is difficult to explain is that on the later date of 1896, and in the 1900 Census, there is no mention of William Spence and, indeed, the 1900 Census states that Susan Spence is a ‘Widow’, whereas William Spence appears in  the Census of that date as a married man in service to the Theodore K Gibbs family at Bethshan in Newport RI.   Susana [sic] heads the family at 921 33rd Street [it is not clear if this was ‘East’ or ‘West’], her occupation shown as ‘Boarding House’.  The children have, of course, grown up since the last record of them in 1880 – Susanna Mary is now 28; Sarah Charlotte 26, ‘review office’;  Elizabeth Jane, 24; William Frederick, 20, Clerk; and brother Arthur Boulding, 18, Bookkeeper.  Five Boarders and a maid complete this household.

Deaths of William and Susannah Spence: William Spence died of stomach cancer on 23 February 1908, at St Francis Hospital.  His address was given as 2394 Morris Avenue in the Bronx.   Susanna Mary Spence died two years later, on 5 June 1910.  Her address was given as 2384 Tiebout Ave, also in the Bronx, where she had been recorded in the 1910 Census just a few months earlier as ‘head’ of the household, a ‘widow’, residing with her unmarried children son Arthur and daughter Elizabeth, and married daughter Florence Victoria and her husband.  Both William and Susannah were buried at Woodlawn Cemetery, in Lot A, Range 165, Grave 54.  I hope one day some descendant may venture there to visit this site.

I will leave the Spence family here.  Anyone wishing further information about the descendants of William and Susannah can contact me through a message on this website.  In my next post, I will return to the Pellatt/Meriton branch of the family.

[1] Landmarks Preservation Commission, December 11, 1990; Designation List 230 LP-1817: ‘130-132 West 18th Street Stables Building, 130-132 West 18th Street, Borough of Manhattan. Built 1864-65. Architect unknown. Downloaded 10 February 2009 from:  http://www.neighborhoodpreservationcenter.org/db/bb_files/1990-130West18StreetStables.pdf
[2] Hey, David, Ed. The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2nd ed. 2008, p. 448.
[3] ‘Newport Villas Closed. A sharp touch of winter drives many visitors to New-York’, New York Times, Dec 15, 1895. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=950DE2DC1E3DE433A25756C1A9649D94649ED7CF
[4] New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, Ladies Mile Historic District Designation Report, Vol 1, 1989, page 355.
[5] See, for instance, New York Times April 14, 1896, ‘Funeral of Dr J W Roosevelt, Services in Holy Communion Church largely attended’
[6] See, for instance, a report of the Diocesan Convention of the New York Diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church, New York Times, Sep 26 1902.
[7] New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, Ladies Mile Historic District Designation Report, Vol 1, 1989.

40. Backler/Boulding: Susannah Mary Boulding and Apsley Samuel Boulding emigrate to America

In which we summarise what is known about the migration of my g.g. grandmother Susannah Mary Boulding and her younger brother Apsley Samuel Boulding to the United States.  This summary reveals a few questions. It also introduces the surnames of Spence and Hampson  to the list of Backler-descendants. 

As we have seen in the two previous posts, my g.g. grandmother Susannah (nee Backler) Boulding, then Cross, re-married after the disappearance of her first husband James Boulding, and was found in 1861 living with her second husband Edwin J Cross, and the unfortunate surviving offspring of this marriage, Edwin J F Cross.  But what of Susannah’s two surviving children of her first marriage?  Was it just part of normal circumstances of the day, or had these two been forced to flee the nest after the appearance of their new step-father and step-siblings?  Susannah’s mother Mary (nee Pellatt) Backler had died in 1857, the family having survived bankruptcy in the 1830s and, despite her wealthy Pellatt/Maberly origins, seeming to have fallen on rather straitened times.

1861 Census
And so, Susannah Mary Boulding, aged 16, was found in 1861 as a nurse to the large and growing family of wealthy surgeon Mitchell Henry, whose biography can be seen at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitchell_Henry . With the death of his father in Manchester in 1862, Mitchell Henry gave up his career as a surgeon and – presumably – his home in Wimpole Street, and removed to Manchester and the home of the family business.  He later became a politician, and built Kylemore Lodge, now a convent, in Connemara, Ireland.  Question:  did young Susannah stay in service with this family, or seek another post in London, or move back to be with her mother? 

Even younger, Apsley Samuel Boulding, unlike his many Pellatt and Backler ancestors, does not seem to have been apprenticed out, but was in 1861 a warehouse boy in Tooley Street, Southwark, just south of the river Thames.  Question: what happened to young Apsley after the great fire of 1861 almost certainly destroyed the warehouses where he worked?

Next sightings: USA: Susannah Boulding – marriage to William Spence in 1870
I am fairly certain that the Susan Boulding shown on the ship’s list for the Steamer Scotia, arriving in New York from Liverpool on 1 May 1866, is our g. grandmother.  She appears as a Servant, aged 23, listed

under the names of [difficult to read, but possibly] A W Crawford, a merchant said to be of Germany, and ‘Marie’, listed as a male but almost certainly his wife.  Above Susan’s name are two other servants, both of Great Britain:  Robt Taylor, 30; and Hy [?] Wickham, 27.  I have tried searching all these people in the 1870 US Census, without success.  I have not found Susannah in that census either, but what we do have is the record of her marriage to William Spence in October 1870.  They were married in St John’s Church, Staten Island, by the Rev John C Eccleston, Rector.  Witnesses were Thomas Solomon and Edith Eccleston.  Rev Eccleston was Rector off and on for about 50 years.  In the 1870 Census, Thomas Solomon was a 40 year old Sexton, born in Ireland.  Had he known William Spence prior to the marriage, or was he a witness of convenience?  The marriage took place a year before the consecration of the new church, which was heavily financed by Cornelius Vanderbilt.

How had William and Susannah met?  We do not know whom she was working for when she arrived in America.  However, we know that William was already working for the employer he would serve until his death – Theodore Kane Gibbs, or his family.  In the 1870 Census, William Spence was to be found at the Gibbs family home in fashionable Newport, Rhode Island, where the family spent their summers.  He was said to be aged 40, born in England [sic], and a domestic servant.  In all records after this, he is a Coachman, and in my next post I will give much more detail about him and the Gibbs family.

We have never found when William came to the USA, nor is his age accurately known.  In the 1870 Census he was said to be 40,  presumably a guess by whoever filled in the census return.  At his marriage, also in 1870, he gave his age as 34, giving a birth year of 1836.  Elsewhere, family lore says he was born in Stewartstown, Northern Ireland, in around 1832.  Suffice to say that we don’t actually know!   Helpfully, but so far bringing us no closer to information about William’s ancestry, are the names of his parents – William Spence and Mary Hutton – given on the marriage certificate. This is an ongoing search.

For the moment, we will leave Susannah and William, and summarise what we know of her brother, Apsley Samuel Boulding.

USA: Apsley Samuel Boulding and Francine Hampson
There are two records of immigration for Apsley Boulding.  The first is on 4 April 1870, aboard the Aleppo, into Boston.  Apsley Boulding is said to be a Farmer, aged 22.   In theory, Apsley should appear on the US Federal Census, taken on 1 June 1870, but I cannot find him (nor, as stated above, his sister).

But…there is a second possibility: In his US Naturalisation declaration in 1888, he states that he arrived in March 1873, which is corroborated – sort of – by a Canadian immigration record showing the arrival on 17 June 1873 of A S Boulding, aged 25, a Labourer destined for Montreal, on The Peruvian from Liverpool.  Was this Apsley?  There is no record of a border crossing into the USA.  As shown in our post about Apsley’s half brother, Edwin J F Cross, hospital records indicated that Edwin’s brother was in Canada.  Question: Did Apsley travel twice across the Atlantic, first to Boston, then presumably returning to England and subsequently voyaging to Canada, from which he went to New York City?

Whenever and wherever he arrived, we know the broad details of his life until his death in 1925.  He married Francine [aka Francena or Francenie] Hampson (c. 1861 – 1937) in 1880.  She was descended from hatmakers in Stockport, England.  In his 1888 naturalisation declaration, he was a ‘Waiter’, but by the 1900 Census they are found in Newark NJ, where he is a Superintendent – Club.  In 1910, Apsley is a Steward in a country club in Lancaster PA.  Living with them is her 14 year old niece, Ethel Telford.  By the 1925 New York Census, the couple are living on East 92nd Street in New York City, with no occupation.  This was just before Apsley’s death on 12 February 1926, followed by Francenie’s death ion January 1937.  There were no known children of this marriage.

In my next post, I will try to summarise what I know about the Newport and New York City lives of The Spence/Boulding marriage.  This will bring us into recent memory.  In future posts I may digress, to describe the Pellatt/Maberly/Meriton lines.

 

39. Backler/Boulding/Cross: the sad fate of ‘Uncle Fred’, Edwin John Frederick Cross (1856-1916)

In which we follow the sad story of Edwin John Frederick Cross, the half-brother of my great grandmother, Susannah Mary [nee Boulding] Spence. With repeated admissions to different ‘lunatic’ asylums around London, it seems that our ‘Uncle Fred’ was, in effect, disowned by his father after his mother died. The photo (and its reverse) is, I believe, Uncle Fred.  I am not responsible for the touched-up eyes!

In my previous post (38), I followed the fortunes of my g. g. grandmother Susannah [nee Backler] Boulding Cross, the birth and death of two children, and the birth and survival of her son with her second husband, Edwin John Cross.  The three of them were last found together in the 1871 England Census at 130 High Street, Camden Town:    Edwin J Cross (Head, Mar, 37, China Manufacturer, born Middlesex), Susanna (Wife, 53, born Marylebone) and Edwin J F (Unmar, son, 15, born Marylebone).  A few years after this date, young Edwin’s life began what seems to have been a downward spiral.

18 years old – first hospitalisation: For many years, I could not find records for Edwin J F Cross, other than his presence as shown below in the 1891 Census.  As new records come on line, new discoveries are possible, and Edwin’s fate was soon mapped out after the discovery of a record for him on findmypast at the Bethlem Hospital, dated 1874.  The full story and transcript of this record is below, but for the sake of clarity, this section of this post will chronicle what can be found of his stays in various institutions for most of the rest of his life.

The Bethlem Hospital: 9 January 1874 – 11 January 1875.  Discharged ‘uncured’.  A ‘Private’ patient: The Bethlem Hospital was the original ‘Bedlam’, its origins lying in the first hospital dedicated to caring for people with mental illnesses.  In fact the ‘care’ could be cruel, and covered conditions ranging from learning disabilities to dementia and much besides.  In Victorian times people whose behaviour marked them out in some way as ‘inconvenient’, could be admitted on the signature of a medic. When ‘Uncle Fred’ attended in 1874 for a year, the hospital was located south of the river Thames, on what is now the site of the Imperial War Museum.  EJFC was presumably discharged home to 156 Camden High Street, but his period outside institutions was not to last long.

Banstead: Cross Edwd [sic], J F. Pauper Male. 31 July 1877 – 4 January 1878:  Banstead was the third Middlesex Asylum, opened in 1877, for ‘chronically insane pauper lunatics’ (http://studymore.org.uk/4_13_ta.htm#Banstead) It was later transferred to London County Council.  In 1986 it was closed, and two prisons are now in new premises on the grounds. I lived for many years only a couple of miles away.  This period of discharge was to last only a few weeks:

Middlesex County Asylum – Colney Hatch, later Friern Hospital:  Edwin J F Cross. Male Pauper.  8 February 1878 – 24 May 1878.  Discharged Reld. [this means ‘relieved’] (record on Ancestry UK, Lunacy Patients’ Admissions Registers)  Situated in North London, Colney was the second Middlesex Lunatic Asylum, founded in 1851.  It has now been converted into luxury flats, like so many of the Victorian asylums. Edwin was discharged direct back to:

Banstead:  24 May 1878, Edwin J F Cross. Male Pauper.  Discharged 17 June 1881, recovered. (record on Ancestry UK, Lunacy Patients’ Admissions Registers)

1881 Census [April]: Edwin J F Cross is to be found as “E J F C” at The Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum, Banstead, a 24 year old Shorthand Writer. Meanwhile, his parents were at:

1881 Census: Edwin J Cross (Head, 47, China Dealer, born Middx Marylebone) and Susannah (Wife, 63, born Middx Marylebone), at 58a Chalk Farm Road just north of Camden Town.

A period of respite but great change – the early 1880s:  As shown above, Edwin was discharged from Banstead on 17 June, 1881, ‘recovered’.  During the 1880s a number of life-changing events perhaps tipped him over the edge into longterm illness.  The family retains a long and rambling letter to his niece Susanna Spence in New York City in 1882. It was written from the Chalk Farm Road address in which his mother and father were living in the 1881 Census, above. It is dated 7 April 1882.  Extracts and an image are below. In a postscript he wrote to ‘Susie’ that his mother had been taken ill:

P.S.  Since writing the above I am sorry to say dear Mother has been taken very ill with a slight attack of rheumatic fever.  She of course keeps her bed & therefore I feel quite unfit to write to your dear Mama & your Uncle Apsley, but will do so as soon as I can…

Less than a year later, on 9 February 1883, Susannah Cross [nee Backler, formerly Boulding] died age 66 years, at 156 High Street, Camden Town.  The cause was congestion of the lungs 7 days – presumably pneumonia.  As seen in my previous post, Edwin’s father was not long to remain a widower.  In the June quarter of 1884, he married widow and mother-of-two Frances Ann (nee Lusty) Hilliard.  Not unnaturally, Edwin Sr made a new Will, dated 26 November 1884.  However, somewhat surprisingly, this Will makes no mention at all of his son Edwin J F Cross, leaving everything to his wife and executor, Frances Ann Cross.  Edwin Sr died on 28 October 1889, at 38 Spencer Square, Ramsgate, Kent, ‘formerly’ of 156 High Street Camden Town, Gentleman.  His estate’s gross value was £143 – 14 – 6.

Very shortly after this event, sometime in 1890, his widow Frances Ann Cross, emigrated to the USA with her two sons, a daughter in law and 2 grandchildren.  She appeared with them in Boston in the 1900 US Census, and died there in 1902.

More institutions:  Could it have been his father’s move to Kent which precipitated the placing of Edwin J F Cross back in institutions?Peckham House Asylum: Edwin J Cross, Pauper Male, admitted 12 March 1887 – 23 March 1888 ‘Reld’.  According to the ‘Lost Hospitals of London’ website, this was a small, privately-run establishment, which by the 1880s was one of a handful of such places, catering for both pauper and private patients.  In 1882 there were some 380 patients, making it vastly different from the very large local authority asylums.

1891 Census: Edwin J Cross, a Boarder, 35, single, at 22 Henslowe Road, East Dulwich, a Lawyer’s Clerk.  By this date, Edwin had virtually no living relatives – at least close ones.  His mother and father had died; his half siblings were in America, as was his step-mother.  His mother’s sister, Esther Maria (nee Backler) Abelin was living with her son Algernon Abelin just a few blocks away at 39 Choumert Square, Peckham.  Surely they were in touch with each other?

What resources did E J F Cross have, having received nothing from his father’s will?  Was he in touch with more distant but wealthy Backler relatives – the wife and daughter of Henry McLauchlan Backler – who lived in Camberwell in the Parish of St Giles? 

Workhouse – Parish of St Giles Camberwell: Edwin Cross 1856 CE [Church of England] Clerk. Admitted 20 March 1895 ‘Alleged Insane’.  25 March 1895 – Transferred to Claybury:  There were three workhouses in Camberwell.  Their interesting history can be seen at: http://www.workhouses.org.uk/Camberwell/#Post-1834

Claybury Asylum – admission presumably on 25 March 1895.  Discharge unknown: We do not know how long EJFC stayed at Claybury.  Our next sighting of him is in the 1901 Census, in Leavesden – see below.  Claybury was to be the fourth Middlesex County Asylum, but after the reorganisation of local government, it became the 5th London County Council Asylum (the others being Cane Hill, Hanwell, Friern, and Banstead). A feeling for it is given as follows:

‘The construction of the Asylum was finished in 1893.  It had 2,000 beds and the first patients were admitted on 16th May that year.  From May 1893 until February 1894 some 1,130 patients were transferred from 40 different asylums and Licensed Houses.  The remaining 860 were acute cases admitted as they occurred in London (where people were certified insane at a rate of 70 a week). ..The Asylum was built to accommodate 800 male and 1,200 female pauper lunatics, and had over 20 acres of floor space.  The sexes were strictly segregated.  On admission, each patient was examined and photographed.  Male patients were issued with three suits of clothing – two for everyday working wear, that is, one for summer and one for winter, and one for Sundays – as well as an Inverness overcoat.  The women had no specific uniform.’  https://ezitis.myzen.co.uk/claybury.htm   Our next sighting of Edwin is in the 1901 England Census:

1901 Census.  Metropolitan Asylum Leavesden.  Edwin Frederick Cross, Patient, Single, 42, Commercial Clerk, born London Camberwell [sic], Lunatic:  The Metropolitan Asylums Board had established Leavesden in the 1870s as an Asylum for ‘quiet and harmless imbeciles’.  It is located between Abbots Langley and Watford, to the north of London.

For a photo dated 1907, showing staff and a ward at Leavesden, and for a much longer, and very sobering account of the history of the institution, see http://www.workhouses.org.uk/MAB-Leavesden/ 

At some point the asylum also took people with mental illnesses, as there are many ‘lunatics’ in both the 1901 and 1911 censuses.

1911 Census.  Metropolitan Asylum Leavesden, Edwin Cross, Patient, 55. Born London St Georges [sic]. Lunatic. 

Death: 13 February 1916.  Edwin F Cross, Male, 60 years, of Camberwell Parish formerly a Clerk.  Cause of death: Dysentery P.M. Death Reported by F A Hadden, Deputy Medical Superintendent, Leavesden Asylum Watford.

Medical record, Edwin J F Cross, aged 18 years:  Here below is the transcript of EJFC’s medical record when he was admitted aged 18 to the Bethlem Asylum.  Like everything in this report, it makes sobering and sad reading.

Edwin John Frederick Cross.  Age 18. Admitted Jan 9. Previous abode, Camden Town. Occupation Shorthand Clerk. Single. First attack, lasting about three weeks. Supposed cause of insanity ‘over study’.  Not suicidal or dangerous to others.  Has sober habits, good education, weak state of bodily health, religious persuasion – non-conformist. No relatives similarly afflicted.

“1st Medical Certificate

  1. Facts indicating Insanity observed by myself: Religious delusions – imagines himself to be lost since his connection with the Chapel
  2. Other facts (if any) indicating Insanity communicated to me by others: His father states that he has been violent and required restraint about twice a day – that he has delusions about seeing his brother who is now in Canada. [Note here and below that Apsley Samuel Boulding had gone to America, and is not known to have been in Canada, although it is possible that he was].Wm Adams –  Harrington Square

2nd Medical Certificate

  1. Facts indicating Insanity observed by myself: States he has blasphemed the Holy Spirit, but cannot explain in what way or by what act he has done so
  2. Other facts (if any) indicating Insanity communicated to me by others: His father says he told him he had seen his brother on Saturday last – his brother at the same time being in Canada – also told them that he had met his late employer without his arm. Charles Astley Wakefield, St Marylebone”  [He was a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, and a Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries] 

Discharged “Uncured 6 Jan 1875 WR Williams”

Medical record:  “Informant father.  No insanity in family – No Phthisis [tuberculosis]. Naturally quiet in disposition, but cheerful, steady in conduct. A shorthand clerk. No serious illness or accidents, his health has been fair.

“In October observed to be vacant in manner – slow in answering questions. Was discharged from his employment on this account in October – since then under Medical care – becoming more vacant – A month ago delusions observed – for last fortnight has taken little food – getting weaker though observed to be stouter about the neck and waist – Clothes not meeting – Much constipation – Sleeping badly for the last few days before admission – but complaining of being disturbed at night by voices for a month previously – Reserved and morose in behaviour  from commencement of attack – On Saturday (Jan 3) he lost control of himself, and showed some Violence toward his parents, and had to be forcibly restrained – Under constant control since then is excitable  Not extravagant  – Not suspicious –”

[Different handwriting] “Janry 16. A fat, flabby sallow looking youth suffering from a partial dementia. He is unoccupied & solitary. Eats  fairly & sleeps better. Takes no interest in things around him.

“Janry 24 About the same. Neither sociable nor industrious. Personally tidy and clean”  [there is a galvanic chart to the right of this date entry] 

[next page – to the right of the entries through March 15 are three galvanic charts]

Janry 31st. No improvement

Febry 7. Pale, anemic, indolent & untidy. Given to self abuse. Demented.

Feby 14, 21, 28; March 5:  No change

April 1 To be fed with Stomach Pump once daily.

” 7 To be fed twice daily with Pump. He lies in bed & is in a peculiar cataleptic state

” 10 Takes his food At least some of it

” 14 Takes more food, Still in bed

” 20. Gets up daily Less cataleptic He is gaining strength

” 28. Talks more & reads the paper a little

May 4, 20. About the same

June 5

”  10 Continue galvanism  He is rather brighter. He cries during the Application

[ to the right of this entry are galvanic data and a chart] 

June 20 Galvanism not continued Some slight improvements in cleanliness. Less cataleptic

July 1 A little better but I fear good for nothing

July 22 No change

Aug 28 –  No change

Sept 4 Rather more tidy and brighter

Sept. 10 Still brighter

Sep. 20 Relapsed. As untidy and silly as ever

Oct 9. Brighter and more healthy looking Quite robust and jolly

Oct 20 Now he is talkative & uses strong language very freely. He is rather witty as well as blasphemous

Nov 1 Again untidy and dirty

” 14   Varying

” 30. Again abusive & chappy

Dr. 10 Quiet & less troublesome

” 28 Variable

At one time masturbating & excited Untidy and impulsive.  At another pallid, dirty & sullen

There is no very great regularity as to time in the accesses [sic]; no true “jolie circulaire” [an alternating form of disease with periods of depression and mania, possibly now referred to as bipolar]

He will probably end by becoming a dement

Janry 3 Today without any warning sprang up and smashed a window in the dining room. He then struck one of the doctors in the face
He was put in seclusion for the rest of the day.

Jany 6,  Discharged uncured.

JB”

The Admission and Discharge Register shows:

Discharge: 1875 Jany 11.  Date of last Admission: Jany 9th 1874.  No in Register of Patients 5316.  Edwin John Frederick Cross.  Male.  Private. Discharged Not Improved.

A letter to his half-niece Susanna Spence in New York City:  The following is the letter written to Susanna Mary Spence (1872 – 1933). Her siblings were born as follows: Sarah Charlotte Spence, (1874 – 1959); Florence Victoria Spence (1876 – 1946); Elizabeth J Spence (c. 1878 – ?1951); William Frederick Spence [named after Uncle Fred?] (1879 – 1956); Arthur Boulding Spence  (1882 – 1966)]

53a Chalk Farm Road. Haverstock Hill N W

London April 7th 1882

My dearest Niece

I now take the first opportunity I have had for some time to answer your dear & beautiful little letter you so kindly sent me. It is beautifully written, so clear and neat, and gives bright hopes for prospects in the future.  Now dear before commencing to do so I sincerely ask you to forgive my absence of mind or whatever it may be as dear Mother puts it, rather, of finding or making time to reply & without tiring you with details you will I trust take my apology for not having more quickly done so.

You don’t know how I prize your note. I shall put it in my Cash Box & keep it there for an unknown future, never to part with it, for its sweet, and simple & loving ray of childlike expressions & the willingness so readily displayed in satisfying your uncle Fred’s wish to receive a letter from you so soon as you would be able to send one.

Now tell your dear Mamma to kiss you a thousand times for such a letter as this, at any rate one from her must act as equivalent to it.  What should I say if I could only be amongst you & your dear little Brothers & Sisters.  I am afraid I should never leave you.  It would be a great joy to me to see you all.

I hope I am not fatiguing you at all, because if I am say so & leave the rest for another day.

It pleases me to know you are progressing so nicely in your studies. Dear Susie, depend upon it you cannot use your time better than having something to do – something which will place you one step more in advance of what you were yesterday.  God’s first commandment says “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy soul and with all thy mind.  This is the first & great commandment”  And therefore if we love him so, we shall do everything in that same earnest spirit.  We shall be loved for what we do & shall be pleased to do it, & then we shall be a pleasure to those around us whom we love.

Now I dare say you already know that if you half do a thing your play is not half so joyous & happy as it would have been had you done it properly.  Why is this: Because you are dissatisfied with what you have done & that dissatisfaction is troubling you all the while you are at play.

Whatever we have to do let us do it in our best.  For instance if Mamma asks you to do a little thing which perhaps costs just a little trouble & denial do not forget dear there is One above who watches over you & sees you in all you do or say & who holds the Reward in his hand, not the reward which any earthly parent or friend can offer, but one far higher and nobler & we can all try for it.  Please God & you are sure to please (…) your earthly parents & friends. Don’t mind what any little companions may have to say to you to coax you out of it, as being too much trouble & requiring too much self denial, & say, I don’t take as much trouble as that, I just do it & that is sufficient, for me. I am speaking of great things now & young people are too apt to forget them.  Small they call them but small as they may appear, bring about great results either for good or evil.

“Whatever deserves doing at all, deserves doing well.”

[After a quote from Matthew 7, there are then four verses, the first of which begins “There is a path that leads to God…”  This is followed by another verse of a hymn.]

The letter continues:
I am glad to hear dear that your sister Sarah is sharing in your success at school & that Florie is going soon.

Your dear Grandmama is very pleased at the names your little Brother has had given him [Presumably referring to newborn Arthur Boulding Spence. James Boulding’s sister Charlotte’s son was named Arthur Boulding Cole, and in turn he had a child in 1876 also named Arthur Boulding Cole. It seems possible, then, that Uncle Fred was also in touch with his mother’s Boulding relatives.]  Remember me kindly to your dear little Brothers & Sisters & kiss them all for me & accept much love for yourself, your dear Papa & Mamma included.

Believe me to remain,
Your affectionate Uncle Fred

P.S.  Since writing the above I am sorry to say dear Mother has been taken very ill with a slight attack of rheumatic fever.  She of course keeps her bed & therefore I feel quite unfit to write to your dear Mama & your Uncle Apsley, but will do so as soon as I can…

P.S. 2. Be sure you all have a ride on Jumbo.  He is a beautiful creature.  [Presumably referring to Jumbo the elephant…]

And with that, we say a sad goodbye to Uncle Fred.  Perhaps he found security in the confines of the institutions in which he spent so many years.  The stark details outlined here were replicated for many thousands of men and women who spent years of their lives in institutions in the 19th and 20th centuries.  His half nephew, Arthur Boulding Spence, would repeat this pattern in the mid-20th century in New York State, hopefully in more humane and enlightened surroundings than those which Uncle Fred experienced.

38. Backler/Boulding/Cross: the denoument of my g.g. grandmother Susannah (1817 – 1883)

In which we trace the last years of my g.g. grandmother, Susannah [nee Backler] Boulding/Cross, rounding off the fates of her and the three children born to her second marriage, before following her two surviving Boulding children across the Atlantic.

In previous posts, we have seen that my g.g. grandfather James Boulding appears to have deserted his young family in or after 1848, after the birth of his and Susannah’s third child Apsley Samuel Boulding, and following the death on the same day of their second child, Lucilla Charlotte Boulding.  The first intimation of this supposed desertion comes with the 1851 census, showing Susannah and her two surviving children living with her parents in Islington.  She is ‘married’, but in this census year there is no James Boulding to be found in the British Isles.  It seems possible he had gone to Australia.

1851 England Census.  2 Old Paradise Row.  St Mary, Islington
Samuel Backler, Head, married, 66. Clerk [sic], Born Middlesex Stoke Newington
Mary Backler [nee Pellatt], Wife, married, 60. Born Middlesex Holborn
Esther Maria Backler, daughter, unmarried, 21.  Born Middlesex Bayswater
Susanna Boulding, daughter, married, 34. Born Middlesex Oxford Street.
Susanna Mary Boulding, grand daughter, 5. Scholar at home. Born Middlesex Islington
Apsley Samuel Boulding, grand son, 3. Born London Fleet Street.

We have seen in previous posts that Samuel Backler would live on for another 20 years, apparently tended by his youngest child, Esther Maria.  The status of Susanna, however, would change with her marriage on 28 October 1855, seven years after the disappearance of her husband James.  I am not exactly sure of the legal basis, but there

seems to have been an accepted rule that if someone had disappeared for seven consecutive years, with no news that they were alive, they could be presumed dead.  Hence Susanna’s status at the time of her second marriage as ‘widow’.

The marriage to Edwin John Cross, bachelor (and some 17 years Susannah’s junior), described as ‘Clerk’, took place just four months before the birth of their first child, Edwin John Frederick Cross, born on 24 February 1856, and christened at Christ Church St Marylebone on 30 March 1856, at which time his parents’ address was given as 13 Park Street.  Much more about him in a blogpost to follow.

Two years later another birth followed: Lucilla Beatrice Cross (another try for a little girl named ‘Lucilla’ – I have not found a precedent for Susanna’s use of this name).  Born on 1 June 1858, little Lucilla Beatrice was buried in Camden on 28 March 1861.  Thus the 1861 Census, taken shortly after this sad event, records just Edwin senior, Susannah and son Edwin jr.

1861 England Census. 
St Pancras, Camden Town.  3 Pratt Street (see photo right)
Edwin Cross, Head, Married, 27, China Dealer. Born Middx Marylebone
Susanna Cross, Wife, Married, 44. Born Middx Marylebone [sic]
Edwin Cross, Son, 5. Born Middx Marylebone
Susan Day, Lodger, Widow. Annuitant. Born Essex Harlow.

On 31 August 1862, Maberly Pellatt Cross was born to Edwin (china dealer) and Susannah Cross.  He was christened in September of that year at All Saints Church Camden Town, with the surnames of his mother’s maternal grandparents.  Alas, little Maberly was buried in Camden on 10 April 1863.  Older brother Edwin J F Cross was now about 6 years old, and had witnessed the deaths of two younger siblings.  Could this have affected him later in life?

Two Boulding children – soon to cross the Atlantic
Meanwhile, in 1861, young Edwin’s two half siblings appear to have been farmed out from the new Cross family.  Could this have been due to the influence of their new step-father?  We will take them across the Atlantic in a future blogpost, but suffice to say at the moment that in 1861 we find them as follows:

At number 5 Harley Street (now and then renowned as the location for private health care), in the home of Consulting Surgeon Mitchell Henry, 34, and his wife and 4 children, plus Governess, Butler, Footman, Cook, two Housemaids, Kitchen Maid, and two nursemaids, one of whom was my Great Grandmother Susan [sic] Boulding, unmarried, 16, born Middx Islington.

In the same Census, at 193 Tooley Street, in the home of Charles Bell, a Pawnbroker, we find her brother, 13 year old Apsley Boulding, Warehouse Boy, born Middlesex Strand.  He probably would not have been here long, as shortly after this Census was taken most of Tooley Street was destroyed in the great fire of 1861 (just search Tooley Street fire 1861 for details of this cataclysmic event).

How much these youngsters saw of their mother, step-father and half-siblings, is not known, though we will see that there was at least some correspondence with them after they left for America.

Back to the Cross family.
In 1871, we find Edwin, Susannah and 15 year old Edwin J F Cross at 130 High Street, Camden Town.
In 1881 Edwin and Susannah are at 58a Chalk Farm Road, a bit north of Camden Town (see left).

In this Census, sadly, we find the first intimation that things might not go too well for their only surviving child, Edwin John Frederick Cross.  As I will describe in more detail in a later post, we find in 1881 the following:

E J F C, age 24, Shorthand Writer, Patient, Lunatic, in the Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum, in Banstead Surrey, just up the hill from where I lived for many years.

On 9 February 1883, my G.G. Grandmother Susannah [nee Backler] [Boulding] Cross  died aged 66. She had congestion of the lungs, 7 days.  Her death was registered by her husband, E J Cross, of 156 High Street, Camden Town.

By the June quarter of 1884, Edwin had married widow Frances Anne [nee Lusty] Hilliard, mother of two children, and by the autumn of that year, Edwin had written his Will, leaving everything to his new wife and Executrix.  No mention at all of his son Edwin J F Cross.  Edwin Sr died in 1889, then living in Ramsgate Kent, and his Will was proved by his wife in January 1890.  At some point she emigrated to America, where she was to be found in Herrick Street, Boston in the 1900 US Census, living with her two sons Herbert H Hilliard and Walter J H Hilliard.   Frances died on 3 March 1902 and was buried in Evergreen Cemetery, Brighton MA.  Her son Herbert H Hilliard perished on The Titanic, while her son Walter J H Hilliard died in 1926 and is also interred in Evergreen Cemetery.

Meanwhile, their step-son and step-sibling Edwin J F Cross was living out what was a rather sad and lonely life in England – the subject of my next post.

 

 

37. Boulding/Backler (2): Samuel Boulding (c.1750-1929), his two wives and four (supposed) children

In which we look in a little more detail at the (supposed) children of Samuel Boulding and his soon-to-be wife Mary Shepherd.

Four children baptised – whose were they?  And marriage to Mary Shepherd:           As noted in my previous post, Samuel Boulding had moved to the new development at Upper Craven Place, opposite Kensington Gardens, in about 1815.    Some mysteries ensue:

  • I have found no mention of Elizabeth [nee Leach] Boulding after the record of her marriage with Samuel Boulding on 6 March 1796.  I have searched Marylebone and Westminster records for evidence of burial, but found nothing.
  • Four children were christened at  St James’ Paddington, parents being ‘Samuel and Mary Boulding’.  They were:
    • 8 September 1816: Maria Boulding and Jane Boulding 
    • 9 September 1821: Charlotte Boulding
    • 17 August 1823 (born 24 June 1823): James Boulding
  • But – oops! – we find the following post-hoc marriage on 24 July 1824: again at St Clement Danes, Samuel Boulding is a widower of St James Paddington (with a very shaky signature), Mary Shepherd, a spinster, of ‘this’ parish.  Witnesses M Boyle and Wm Boyle.

Samuel Boulding was buried on 29 July 1829 at St Mary’s Paddington Green, said in the burial register to be age 79.

Was he the father of the four children, christened as children of Samuel and Mary Boulding?  Was Mary Shepherd, whom he married after the births of the four children, their mother, or was their mother another Mary?  How can we know?

If, indeed, Samuel Boulding was 79 when he died, he would have been about 74 when he married Mary Shepherd, and in his late 60’s and early 70s when the four children, shown as his on the diagram above,  were born and baptised.

‘Strangers in blood’: Death duty registers.
Samuel Boulding’s Will, written in 1827 with a codicil in 1828, made provision for his wife – furniture etc, an annual allowance, wine, linen etc – and then charged his executors with the disposal of his properties in Beaumont Street, Sloane Square, and adjacent to his dwelling in Upper Craven Place (formerly Black Lion Lane), and overseeing the administration of funds to the four above-listed children, all minors at the time of his death.  Provision was made for the advance of up to £300 to son James, prior to his reaching the age of 21 (which would happen in 1844, a significant date).  In his Codicil, Samuel noted that if his wife were to re-marry, or to co-habit with another man, the residence in Upper Craven Place should pass to the four children.

Two events gave official recognition to the illegitimacy of the four children.  The first was at the time of the death of Jane Boulding in 1838 (see below).  The second is an annotation in the pages of the death duties register, which can be seen at The National Archives.  This register was begun at the time of death.  It summarised the provisions of the Will, and noted when various transactions were made in accordance with the Will’s provisions.  As late as July 3, 1898, the following note appears:

It has since the pay[men]t of the 1st duty, been discovered that the whole of the legatees & Res. Legatees were Strangers in blood to the tes[ta]tor & the difference of duty is now paid. [different pen and handwriting:] 3 July 1898.  [initials]

The Register page is littered with notes about considerable sums paid – many thousands of £s.  Where did Samuel get the funds for such wealth?

Jane Boulding: death of a ‘bastard’, intestate, 15 February 1838
Jane Boulding’s death certificate shows her death at age 27 [sic], Spinster, of Abscess on the Lungs.  Her address was 7 Winchester Row, and the death was reported by Philip Briggs, ‘father in law’ – the information which subsequently led to discovering the re-marriage of the widowed Mary [Shepherd] Boulding, although I have not conclusively identified her death.  (Apparently the term ‘father in law’ was sometimes used at the time to refer to ‘step-father’.)

Jane had died Intestate, and the document TS 17/59 at The National Archives reported the Administration of her effects: ‘Whereas Jane Boulding late of No. 7 Winchester Row, New Road, Paddington, in the County of Middlesex, spinster, a Bastard … died Intestate…

The Administration, sworn on 23 December 1841, showed estate under £1,500.  Jane did not appear to have profited much from her father’s fortune.

Maria Boulding (c. 1816 – 1897) married widower and father of three children, Daniel Newton Crouch (a Lawyer, born in Scotland) on 17 September 1840, at St Mary’s Church, Marylebone.  Her address was given as 7 Winchester Row, showing she was living with her mother and step father Philip Briggs.  The couple had three children, with no known surviving issue:

  • Maria Charlotte Crouch (1842-1905)
  • Henry Newton Crouch (1843-1868) married in 1867 to Clara Isabella Meymott, one un-named child born and died in 1867.  Clara re-married after Henry’s death a year later.
  • Mary Christina Crouch (c. 1847-1937)

Charlotte Boulding (c. 1816 – ?1916) married widower Thomas Cole (a carriage and portable clock maker) on 23 October 1841, at the Parish Chapel, St Pancras.  Thomas Cole died in 1864. The couple had three children (two others appear in censuses, but they are the children of Thomas Cole’s previous marriage):

  • Arthur Boulding Cole (1844-1926), watch and clockmaker.  He married (1) Elizabeth Emma Wilson in 1868.  They had six children and quite a few grandchildren.  His second marriage to Elizabeth Sarah Rideout produced two more children. The name Arthur Boulding Cole was to have on ongoing role in my family, as in America some years later, his first cousin once removed would be named Arthur Boulding Spence.
  • Catherine Mary Cole (1847 – ?)
  • Florence Eva Cole (1857-1929), according the the 1911 Census, an accountant and secretary, living in Putney.

Not ‘Backler’ Cousins!:  These folk are all my cousins, but as this is a ‘Backler’ blog, I will leave their histories here.  In my next post, I will explore the fate of the errant James Boulding’s deserted wife – Susannah Mary (nee Backler) Boulding.

 

 

36. Boulding origins – using the Middlesex Deeds Register

A bit of a technical sideline: In which we take a quick look at some research I did some years ago using the Middlesex Deeds Register.  It really didn’t help me locate any more information about Samuel Boulding’s origins, but I include it here…because it is there!

Middlesex Deeds Register: Could the Middlesex deeds register at the London Metropolitan Archives (LMA) help me find out any more about Samuel Boulding’s origins? ?The registers exist for 1709-1938, while the memorials from 1838-1890 were destroyed in 1940.  The documents copied into the registers are abstracts from the originals, including the date of the transaction, the names of the parties, and a description of the property. After the middle of the 19th century, plans might be included, and from 1892 there are separate volumes of plan tracings.  There are indexes from 1709-1919 – the key caveat to all this is that they are in alpha-chronological order in annual volumes, under the surname of the vendor or first party. From 1920-1938 there is an alphabetised card index to the names of the vendors or first parties.

I give this detail about the indexes, because the challenge in using these records is knowing, first, an approximate date of the transaction, and second, the name of the vendor.  Then one has to consult binders at the LMA to check dates and coverage of the microfilm indexes, from which one extracts a reference which helps one find either a microfilm or an original register.  It’s pretty complicated.

The Register wouldn’t have been any help at all if I hadn’t had some other information to help me get started. This was found in a search of The Times on ‘Boulding’, which produced on 20 September 1797 a leasehold estate auction by the Executors of Mr John Spinks deceased. Lot 3 was ‘a neat leasehold house situate on the south side of the said street [Devonshire] and the corner of Beaumont Street, let on lease to Mr. Boulding, at a low rent of £55’.  Particulars were to be obtained at the Rainbow Coffee House in Pall Mall.

Without this information, I would have got nowhere in my search of the Middlesex Deeds Register – I needed the name of ‘Spinks’ to find the entry in the register.  With it, I found a whole series of leases and documents, including John Spinks’ Will (he was a carpenter) and documents showing that the original lease to Spink(s) in 1790 had been from the Duke of Portland, all this area being part of the Cavendish Estate.  What I didn’t find was any evidence of the lease to Samuel Boulding. I did find evidence of his predecessor in the property, a Louis Mange, perfumer, toyman and turner.  Boulding was also said to be a perfumer and toyman in directories of the time.

Yet I know from Sun Fire Insurance records and his will that Samuel Boulding held the property at 12 Beaumont Street on long lease, perhaps living there until sometime in around 1815 he moved to new premises in Upper Craven Place, Bayswater.

And so we move to 1844 and another auction.  It is not clear why this date was chosen – could it be that it was when James Boulding attained the age of 21?  This time it was the executors of Mr. Samuel Boulding, and was for the lease of 12 Beaumont Street, unexpired lease of 44 years (when had it started??); and the lease of 70 years on two properties in Craven Place, Bayswater, where Samuel lived when he died in 1829. This time I used the names of the executors as the vendors, and came up with documents for both properties – tracing the history of the various leases on 12 Beaumont Street, and identifying the beginnings of the Craven Estate through land transfers in about 1813.  Much much more work would be needed to track down the finer detail of both these properties. The language in the registers is opaque, complex, and there are mortgages and re-mortgages; mention of Samuel himself is sparse.

I have learned nothing new from the Middlesex deeds register about Samuel Boulding’s origins (although further searching might yield more information), but I have put flesh on the histories of the properties he owned and lived in.  There are houses in Beaumont Street which would have been contemporary (although now number 12 is within the site of the King Edward VII Hospital); and Craven Place, shown on the map adjacent to Blackman Lane (now Queensway), is now underneath Queensway tube station!  The location opposite Kensington Gardens was surely highly desirable then, as it is now.

 

35. Boulding/Backler (1): Introducing James Boulding (1823 – ?1892) and his (supposed) father Samuel Boulding (c. 1750 – 1829)

In which we introduce my 2x great grandfather James Boulding (1823 – ?1892) and his (supposed) father and my (supposed) 3x g. grandfather Samuel Boulding (c. 1750 – 1829).  With the exception of the ancestry of my great grandfather William Spence, whom we will meet in due course and whose origins in Northern Ireland are difficult to trace, the Bouldings form the smallest fraction of my genealogical records.  Indeed, there are only 8 people with the surname Boulding out of the 1,000+ names in my Family Historian database.  One died in infancy and one as a young adult; one (see below) disappeared aged 25 or so, and the origins of the most senior one (Samuel) remain unknown.  Still, there is plenty to explore, including possible scandal and illegitimacy, and the detonation of a family myth as to the end of the said James Boulding.

 

As described in previous posts, Susannah Mary Backler (1817 – 1883), daughter of Samuel Backler (1784 – 1870) and Mary (nee Pellatt) Backler (1789-1857) married James Boulding, gentleman, on 31 July 1844, at St Mary’s Church, Islington, London, pictured here.

Witnesses were Susannah’s father, Samuel Backler, her sisters – Esther Maria Backler, and Mary Pellatt [nee Backler] – and Mary’s husband and cousin Henry Pellatt.  I do not know who Wm F [?] Young was.  Given the preponderance of Backlers and Pellatts, he was perhaps a supporter of James Boulding.

So far, so good.  The couple were both said to live at 9 Cross Street, now part of a conservation area in Islington.

My great grandmother, Susannah Mary Backler (1845 – 1910), was born 9 months later on 18 May 1845, her father now designated as a stationer, and they having moved to the end of Cross Street, to 140 Upper Street, Islington.

A tragic death.
By 1846, the family were at Pleasant Row in Islington, where Lucilla Charlotte Boulding (1846 – 1848) was born.  I have not found any precedent for the name Lucilla, whereas there was a paternal aunt Charlotte Boulding.  The third child, Apsley Samuel Boulding (1848 – 1925) was born at Dorset Street, near Fleet Street on the same day as the death of little Lucilla Charlotte, of scarlet fever.  Apsley was baptised on the 8th of March 1848 at St Mary’s Islington.  His interesting (and very searchable)  name derives from that of his maternal great grandfather (Apsley Pellatt) and both his maternal and paternal grandfathers (Samuel Backler and Samuel Boulding).

Disappearance of James.
For whatever reason, the registrations of the birth of Apsley Samuel and the death of Lucilla Charlotte are the last we will see of their father James Boulding.  [However – stop press and much excitement – he MAY now be found some 42 years later in NSW, Australia, as I describe below.]  In a later post I will describe the varied fortunes of his wife, Susannah [nee Backler] and her three ill-fated children by her second marriage.  Here, though, we will tease out what can be discovered about James’s said-to-be father, Samuel Boulding.

Samuel Boulding, of St Clement-Danes parish and Marylebone.  The earliest sighting of Samuel Boulding is in Sun Fire Insurance records in 1794.  Properties were insured at 41 and 42 Sloane Square, and his address was given as 10 Great Portland Street, Cavendish Square.  Later he appears as a Perfumer, resident at 12 Beaumont Street, Marylebone.  These were the leasehold properties he bequeathed in his Will in 1829 to his executors John Blake Kirby and Edward Bridger, to hold in trust for his four (spoiler: subsequently-discovered-to-be-illegitimate) children.

In the meantime, what else do I know about Samuel and his two wives?  Precious little!

I do not know where he was born (calculated from his burial record to have been in about 1750), nor anything about him preceding his first marriage to Elisabeth Leach in 1796 at St Clement Danes Church.  Both were of that parish, and witnesses were Thos. Jarrett and S[?] Curtis  (I am none the wiser about who they were).  The surname Boulding is not often found, with clusters in the Sheffield area and Kent.  However, the custodian of the Boulding one-name study has not found an origin for ‘our’ Samuel.  Nor have I found anything about Elisabeth Leach, other than her marriage to Samuel, as above.  I have found no death or burial record for her, although Samuel married again in 1823, after the birth of the four children whose baptisms were registered with him as father, and ‘Mary’ as mother.

Marriage to Mary Shepherd
On 24 July 1824, Samuel Boulding, widower, was married to Mary Shepherd, spinster at St James’s Paddington. This marriage took place after the baptism of the following, all to ‘Samuel Boulding (Gentleman) and Mary, of Paddington’:

  • Maria – she and Jane were christened on 8 September 1816.  No birth date given
  • Jane – see above
  • Charlotte – christened 9 September 1821.  No birth date given
  • James – born June 24 1823, christened 17 August 1823.

More detail about James’s three siblings is in the next post.

Samuel Boulding was buried on 29 July 1829 at St Mary, Paddington Green – a most elegant church, but where the churchyard no longer has stones standing.  His burial record says he was aged 79.  Hmmm…a very mature father!

Points to ponder:

  • Was Mary Shepherd the mother of the 4 children, or could their mother have been another Mary?
  • Was Samuel really a widower when he married Mary?  I have never found a burial record for Elizabeth (nee Leach) Boulding.
  • Was Samuel really 79 when he died?  His signature on his marriage certificate with Mary looks suitably wobbly…(if that isn’t too ageist).
  • Was Samuel really the father of the four children?  How did the couple get away with those four baptisms, when they weren’t married?

Stop Press: Did the long-missing James Boulding end his days in the Liverpool Asylum for the Infirm and Destitute in Liverpool, NSW Australia?  Our family lore had it that James had died in a Boer war battle in South Africa.  Could this have been a fabrication to mask the shame of his apparent desertion of his family?  Or a story invented to allow his wife to declare herself a widow and re-marry, seven years after his disappearance?

I have discovered records on Ancestry of the above Asylum, showing in 1884 the admission of James Boulding, stationer, born London 1823.  Subsequent records of the asylum show him as a ‘labourer’, arriving in Australia on the ‘Lancaster’, dates variously shown as 1850, 1857 and 1851.  I can find no ships list of the Lancaster.  I have not seen his full death record, but I have ascertained that, unusually for Australia, no parents’ names are recorded.  The death record of James Boulding on 15 June 1892 at the Asylum says ‘no known relatives’.

Further research is needed, but I feel all the signs indicate that this, at last, is ‘our’ James Boulding.  A sad and apparently lonely end.